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Over the years, Thailand has seen several shifts in its population policy that aimed at reducing fertility rates that were considered to be too high, to the current policy of maintaining fertility at replacement level as stated in the Ninth and Tenth National Plans, covering the periods 2002- 2006 and 2007-2011 respectively. But given the dramatic changes in the current context where fertility has dropped to startlingly low levels, with implications for population aging, decrease in the size of workforce and eventual population decline, there is a need to reconsider Thailand’s population policy and explore and deliberate upon different options and strategies.